From DDO wiki
Spells have one or more components that are required in order to successfully cast them. Spell pages list these in abbreviation format (V, S, M). The types of components are:
- V: Verbal - This is a spoken incantation. To provide a verbal component, you must be able to speak in a strong voice. Spells with this component are uncastable if you cannot speak.
- S: Somatic - Somatic components are measured and precise hand motions that can be interfered with by wearing armor. This can cause Arcane Spell Failure, resulting in a ruined spell. This means that spells without a Somatic component may be used with disregard to Arcane Spell Failure chance. See: Category:Arcane Spells without a Somatic Component. Note that characters make the same arm gestures for all spells in DDO, so you can't tell which spells require this component by watching your character's animations.
- M: Material - Material components are one or more physical substances or objects that are annihilated by the spell energies in the casting process. Spells with this component are uncastable if you don't have those items in your inventory.
- Expanded Article listing all Material components: Material component